SPRINGFIELD, Ore. - Springfield knows all too well the heartbreak of a mass shooting.
Thurston High School was home to a deadly shooting in 1998. Kip Kinkle killed his parents then opened fire in the school cafeteria, killing 2 people and injuring two dozen more.
The fire chief that day was Dennis Murphy.
He said the lessons of that day all came back when he heard what happened in Colorado.
Murphy said the shootings in Aurora add up to only one thing: domestic terrorism.
He firmly believes that somebody with clues failed to speak up.
"We must report it to prevent these things," he said. "That's the number one defense."
That's the lasting lesson from the group he formed right after the Thurston shootings. Ribbon of Promise prompted students nationwide to report threats of violence to authorities.
The chief says that same idea applies to movie theaters and other facilities - and that somebody had to have known something about the alleged attacker, James Holmes.
"It's almost certain that there was enough information about this attacker that would have raised suspicions that, if reported, could have interrupted the act," the former chief said.
Murphy said a common thread in these shootings is the perpetrator is trying to make a statement.
"The cause not only is greater than their own life but greater than the lives of innocent victims that would be 'collateral damage'," he said.
Murphy said this should be a day of reflection and remembrance, like some people did at the Thurston High School memorial wall.
More than that, the chief said it should be a day of resolve to be pro-active against violence.
"And that time is well passed. If we all have a role, let's accept that role," said Murphy.
More than 50 threatened school shootings early this decade didn't happen, said Murphy, because students nationwide spoke up when they heard threats of violence.